Online Gambling

Internet Casinos Inc. (ICI), the world’s first online casino, started operating from August 18, 1995, with 18 different games. Since then more than 1,400 websites, mostly domiciled in small Caribbean islands, have given rise to an industry that grosses over $3 billion a year. In fact no business on the Internet earns more revenue than online gambling. Out of the estimated 14.5 million online gamblers, almost 30 per cent are from Asia.

A bet can be placed in minutes. Anyone with a credit card can set up an offshore currency account with a gambling site, leaving them free to place bets on sporting events like Wimbledon, cricket, horse racing and Formula One, or join a virtual casino to play slot machines, roulette, blackjack, poker etc. ufabet Companies like Flutter and Betmart accept bets on anything from who is going to win the Nobel Prize to whether Madonna is getting a divorce or not. Bets can range from a nickel to thousands of dollars and according to whether you win or lose the amount is automatically adjusted to your account. The final balance can then either be mailed to you or left for future bets.

The law relating to online gambling in India needs to be understood within the country’s socio-cultural context. At the outset, gambling, although not absolutely prohibited in India, does not receive express encouragement by policy makers. The Indian organized gambling industry is estimated to be worth around US$8 billion. While stringent laws have checked the proliferation of casinos and high street gaming centres as in many other countries, barring the state of Goa, the lottery business remains the most post popular form of gambling.

Though gambling is not illegal, it is a highly controlled and regulated activity. Modern India is a quasi-federal Constitutional democracy and the powers to legislate are distributed at the federal as well as the state levels. Gambling features in List II of the Constitution of India, this implies that the state governments have the authority to enact laws in order to regulate gambling in the respective states. Thus, there is no single law governing gambling in the entire country. Different states have different laws governing gambling in addition to the laws that have an application across the country. While some states have banned lotteries, other states allow state government lotteries marketed and distributed in other lottery playing and promoting states through private entities.
he courts have defined gambling as ‘the payment of a price for a chance to win a prize’. The dominant element of skill or chance shall determine the nature of the game. A game may be deemed to be gambling if the element of chance or luck predominates in deciding its outcome. As a result, Indian courts have held that betting on horse racing and a few card games are not gambling. The right to undertake the business of gambling and lotteries is not considered as a fundamental right protected by the Constitution of India. It may however be pointed out that the state government run lotteries make significant contributions to the state exchequer of several state governments and the Union government, and hence there is a resistance to complete prohibition.
Internet gambling

The law related to gambling is also applicable to online gambling. All gambling contracts are considered to be wagering contracts and it is not possible to enforce such contracts under the ICA, detailed above.

As pointed out earlier, the online lottery is the most popular form of internet gambling in India. Most companies marketing and distributing or conducting state government-sponsored lotteries through the internet are not allowed to sell their services in the states that banned lotteries. In most cases, these marketers and distributors limit their online services to consumers who are residents of the states where a lottery is permissible. Notwithstanding the fact there has been no reported case of breach by any company promoting online lotteries, most of these companies (as a safeguard) seek an undertaking from their consumers relating to their residence.

There have been instances where one state has banned the lottery of other states, including online lotteries. In a recent case, the Karnatka High Court upheld the decision of the Karnataka government to make itself a ‘lottery free zone’ by imposing a ban on lotteries of all other states, including online lotteries under the Lotteries (Regulation) Act 1998. The state government, in this case, directed the closure of the terminals and kiosks selling the online lotteries.
Enforcement over foreign jurisdictions

If the websites are hosted and operated from outside India, it may be difficult for the Indian authorities to issue any directive to close them down or prohibit their access without using its blocking powers under the ITA. The authorities have little to worry about, as Indian foreign exchange laws do not permit remittances outside India for gambling related activity, such as the purchase of lottery tickets, football pools and sweepstakes. As a result, a gambling website hosted outside India aiming at receiving money from within India cannot do so through legal channels.

Conclusion

Online gambling remains a highly regulated sector with seemingly limited horizons to grow. While the present regulatory framework makes it difficult for offshore gambling websites to target customers in India, the India-based companies can only distribute and market state-government lotteries online in permitted territories. The pervasive authority with the government to block gambling related websites and the impossibility of enforcing gambling-related contracts further discourage the prospects for the industry.

Online Gambling

Internet Casinos Inc. (ICI), the world’s first online casino, started operating from August 18, 1995, with 18 different games. Since then more than 1,400 websites, mostly domiciled in small Caribbean islands, have given rise to an industry that grosses over $3 billion a year. In fact no business on the Internet earns more revenue than online gambling. Out of the estimated 14.5 million online gamblers, almost 30 per cent are from Asia.

A bet can be placed in minutes. dewapoker Anyone with a credit card can set up an offshore currency account with a gambling site, leaving them free to place bets on sporting events like Wimbledon, cricket, horse racing and Formula One, or join a virtual casino to play slot machines, roulette, blackjack, poker etc. Companies like Flutter and Betmart accept bets on anything from who is going to win the Nobel Prize to whether Madonna is getting a divorce or not. Bets can range from a nickel to thousands of dollars and according to whether you win or lose the amount is automatically adjusted to your account. The final balance can then either be mailed to you or left for future bets.

The law relating to online gambling in India needs to be understood within the country’s socio-cultural context. At the outset, gambling, although not absolutely prohibited in India, does not receive express encouragement by policy makers. The Indian organized gambling industry is estimated to be worth around US$8 billion. While stringent laws have checked the proliferation of casinos and high street gaming centres as in many other countries, barring the state of Goa, the lottery business remains the most post popular form of gambling.

Though gambling is not illegal, it is a highly controlled and regulated activity. Modern India is a quasi-federal Constitutional democracy and the powers to legislate are distributed at the federal as well as the state levels. Gambling features in List II of the Constitution of India, this implies that the state governments have the authority to enact laws in order to regulate gambling in the respective states. Thus, there is no single law governing gambling in the entire country. Different states have different laws governing gambling in addition to the laws that have an application across the country. While some states have banned lotteries, other states allow state government lotteries marketed and distributed in other lottery playing and promoting states through private entities.
he courts have defined gambling as ‘the payment of a price for a chance to win a prize’. The dominant element of skill or chance shall determine the nature of the game. A game may be deemed to be gambling if the element of chance or luck predominates in deciding its outcome. As a result, Indian courts have held that betting on horse racing and a few card games are not gambling. The right to undertake the business of gambling and lotteries is not considered as a fundamental right protected by the Constitution of India. It may however be pointed out that the state government run lotteries make significant contributions to the state exchequer of several state governments and the Union government, and hence there is a resistance to complete prohibition.
Internet gambling

The law related to gambling is also applicable to online gambling. All gambling contracts are considered to be wagering contracts and it is not possible to enforce such contracts under the ICA, detailed above.

As pointed out earlier, the online lottery is the most popular form of internet gambling in India. Most companies marketing and distributing or conducting state government-sponsored lotteries through the internet are not allowed to sell their services in the states that banned lotteries. In most cases, these marketers and distributors limit their online services to consumers who are residents of the states where a lottery is permissible. Notwithstanding the fact there has been no reported case of breach by any company promoting online lotteries, most of these companies (as a safeguard) seek an undertaking from their consumers relating to their residence.

There have been instances where one state has banned the lottery of other states, including online lotteries. In a recent case, the Karnatka High Court upheld the decision of the Karnataka government to make itself a ‘lottery free zone’ by imposing a ban on lotteries of all other states, including online lotteries under the Lotteries (Regulation) Act 1998. The state government, in this case, directed the closure of the terminals and kiosks selling the online lotteries.
Enforcement over foreign jurisdictions

If the websites are hosted and operated from outside India, it may be difficult for the Indian authorities to issue any directive to close them down or prohibit their access without using its blocking powers under the ITA. The authorities have little to worry about, as Indian foreign exchange laws do not permit remittances outside India for gambling related activity, such as the purchase of lottery tickets, football pools and sweepstakes. As a result, a gambling website hosted outside India aiming at receiving money from within India cannot do so through legal channels.

Conclusion

Online gambling remains a highly regulated sector with seemingly limited horizons to grow. While the present regulatory framework makes it difficult for offshore gambling websites to target customers in India, the India-based companies can only distribute and market state-government lotteries online in permitted territories. The pervasive authority with the government to block gambling related websites and the impossibility of enforcing gambling-related contracts further discourage the prospects for the industry.

Soccer News – Origin and also Evolution of the Game

Football, in a wider sense, refers to distinct sports regarding ball-kicking to help varying levels. However, inside restricted feeling, the sport associated with basketball is limited to simply what on earth is typically known while soccer in most countries. The idea is played by simply best of the counties throughout the world plus very popular with majority regarding this sports-loving people.

Allow us expose ourselves to be able to some football media by ancient past and current days.

ข่าวบอลล่าสุด History of Sports

Football has been played in the ancient times although in different varieties. At other words, the match has evolved dramatically over the years. In accordance with FIFA, this governing body of world soccer, the modern-day basketball comes from a competing sport particularly ‘Cuju’. There are scientific evidences in support of FIFA’s claim. Cuju would seem to be the first of all competitive sport activity that concerned foot-kicking on the ball through a great wide open passage in to the net.

Cuju means that ‘kick ball’. The adventure seemed to be included in a armed forces manual as a portion of exercise in the 3 rd and 4th generations BC. There are documented evidences of football-resembling activities at Zhan Guo, the Oriental military manual. The guide book was compiled in between the next as well as very first century BC. From typically the historical evidences, it is currently positive that the ancient Romans and Greeks used to carry out different kinds associated with ball-games that required use of feet.

Modern-Day Basketball

With expansion of the particular British Empire, football was unveiled in addition to popularized in often the areas below direct British isles influence. Distinct territorial unique codes were formulated when often the nineteenth century was basically pulling to an end. The Football League was founded in the uk back in 1888. Football, in its different sorts, can be followed all over distinct periods in history. This particular league was the to begin many professional soccer competitions. In 20th one hundred year, a variety of soccer started growing plus at some point the sport has been acknowledged as the most favorite game around the world.

Skill inside Football

The game of sports involves lots of pace in addition to skill. Additionally , the gamers are required to have a very solid physique to endure tackling which is really common due to physical nature of the adventure. The action is played concerning a couple of opponent parties, which in turn could end up being clubs within the league or maybe locations on the international grade. Each party has 14 players like one keeper in front of this net. Body fixing can be considered some sort of major ability in basketball.

Rules regarding Football

Any form involving soccer has a clearly defined area of performing the game. The quantity of targets decides typically the winner of your particular go with. Some sort of crew scores some sort of aim every time a player from the team detects the particular back of the opponents’ web. A shot targeted at the opponents’ web is considered ‘goal’ in the event the ball passes the identified goalline as clearly talked about in FIFA rulebook. This winner get three points from a match whereas this loser picks upwards nothing. When the match will be a draw involving the 2 participating teams, every one of them makes one point through the activity.

Things To Consider Before Shopping for A Hoverboard

A hoverboard is a two-wheeled self-balancing scooter which has come to be very popular in the past few years. The idea is usually considered as one particular of the most well-liked products during the getaway season and is every bit as popular among kids plus adults. It is famous because it is effortless to use and possesses zero manual motions such as skateboards.

Also known as hoverboard segway, these types of personal balancing boards employ sensors to detect the particular direction in which the riders leans, and then it is electric electric motor spins often the wheels to advance in of which direction. All one desires to do is shift the bodyweight in the path this individual wishes to move. A person can use this table to commute to job or maybe for enjoyment to help go to any place a person want. If you happen to be willing to purchase one both for yourself or as a new gift for someone more, here are a new few things you will need to consider.

-Cost- Do not necessarily go for hoverbaords which often look too low-cost in order to be true. Cheap ones may well have a bad battery pack and you may possibly get injured when operating on them. Do proper research before buying just about any merchandise.

-Wheel Size- This tire size ranges coming from four. 5 to twelve inches. Small rims usually are recommended for people who also desire to ride on clean and flattened roads. Even bigger wheels are good for operating on the top connected with dirt or grass.

-Features- You can now find hoverboards loaded with capabilities like, Bluetooth speaker systems, GPS DEVICE and universal remote control. All these features normally add to typically the price of this product, nonetheless if you want these individuals, shelling out some extra income is worth this.

-Where to Buy- From where to buy a top quality hoverboard is a quite important consideration because getting it from an unauthorized dealer is not safe and can also lead to injuries. Buying a authentic hoverboard from a respected distributor can help you include a safe and comfy using experience. You can as well hunt for quality hoverboards on the net.

-Legal Consideration- Before an individual buy one of these types of scooters, it is critical to know whether that is legitimate to trip it in public or not. Make sure that you currently have someplace to head out to have some fun riding your hoverboard without any legal boundation

While hoverboards are a lot involving fun to use, they can also be risky in the event that the right precautions will be not taken purchasing these people. Consider the above pointed out take into account make a secure and informed purchase. best self balancing hoverboard for kids

Things To Consider Before Purchasing A Hoverboard

A hoverboard is a two-wheeled self-balancing scooter which has come to be very popular in the past few years. The idea is usually considered as one particular of the most well-liked products during the getaway season and is every bit as popular among kids plus adults. It is famous because it is effortless to use and possesses zero manual motions such as skateboards.

Also known as hoverboard segway, these types of personal balancing boards employ sensors to detect the particular direction in which the riders leans, and then it is electric electric motor spins often the wheels to advance in of which direction. All one desires to do is shift the bodyweight in the path this individual wishes to move. A person can use this table to commute to job or maybe for enjoyment to help go to any place a person want. If you happen to be willing to purchase one both for yourself or as a new gift for someone more, here are a new few things you will need to consider.

-Cost- Do not necessarily go for hoverbaords which often look too low-cost in order to be true. Cheap ones may well have a bad battery pack and you may possibly get injured when operating on them. Do proper research before buying just about any merchandise.

-Wheel Size- This tire size ranges coming from four. 5 to twelve inches. Small rims usually are recommended for people who also desire to ride on clean and flattened roads. Even bigger wheels are good for operating on the top connected with dirt or grass.

-Features- You can now find hoverboards loaded with capabilities like, Bluetooth speaker systems, GPS DEVICE and universal remote control. All these features normally add to typically the price of this product, nonetheless if you want these individuals, shelling out some extra income is worth this.

-Where to Buy- From where to buy a top quality hoverboard is a quite important consideration because getting it from an unauthorized dealer is not safe and can also lead to injuries. Buying a authentic hoverboard from a respected distributor can help you include a safe and comfy using experience. You can as well hunt for quality hoverboards on the net.

-Legal Consideration- Before an individual buy one of these types of scooters, it is critical to know whether that is legitimate to trip it in public or not. Make sure that you currently have someplace to head out to have some fun riding your hoverboard without any legal boundation

While hoverboards are a lot involving fun to use, they can also be risky in the event that the right precautions will be not taken purchasing these people. Consider the above pointed out take into account make a secure and informed purchase. best self balancing hoverboard for kids

Factors To Consider Before Acquiring A Hoverboard

A hoverboard is a two-wheeled self-balancing scooter which has come to be very popular in the past few years. The idea is usually considered as one particular of the most well-liked products during the getaway season and is every bit as popular among kids plus adults. It is famous because it is effortless to use and possesses zero manual motions such as skateboards.

Also known as hoverboard segway, these types of personal balancing boards employ sensors to detect the particular direction in which the riders leans, and then it is electric electric motor spins often the wheels to advance in of which direction. All one desires to do is shift the bodyweight in the path this individual wishes to move. A person can use this table to commute to job or maybe for enjoyment to help go to any place a person want. If you happen to be willing to purchase one both for yourself or as a new gift for someone more, here are a new few things you will need to consider.

-Cost- Do not necessarily go for hoverbaords which often look too low-cost in order to be true. Cheap ones may well have a bad battery pack and you may possibly get injured when operating on them. Do proper research before buying just about any merchandise.

-Wheel Size- This tire size ranges coming from four. 5 to twelve inches. Small rims usually are recommended for people who also desire to ride on clean and flattened roads. Even bigger wheels are good for operating on the top connected with dirt or grass.

-Features- You can now find hoverboards loaded with capabilities like, Bluetooth speaker systems, GPS DEVICE and universal remote control. All these features normally add to typically the price of this product, nonetheless if you want these individuals, shelling out some extra income is worth this.

-Where to Buy- From where to buy a top quality hoverboard is a quite important consideration because getting it from an unauthorized dealer is not safe and can also lead to injuries. Buying a authentic hoverboard from a respected distributor can help you include a safe and comfy using experience. You can as well hunt for quality hoverboards on the net.

-Legal Consideration- Before an individual buy one of these types of scooters, it is critical to know whether that is legitimate to trip it in public or not. Make sure that you currently have someplace to head out to have some fun riding your hoverboard without any legal boundation

While hoverboards are a lot involving fun to use, they can also be risky in the event that the right precautions will be not taken purchasing these people. Consider the above pointed out take into account make a secure and informed purchase. best self balancing hoverboard for kids

Items To Consider Before Purchasing A Hoverboard

A hoverboard is a two-wheeled self-balancing scooter which has come to be very popular in the past few years. The idea is usually considered as one particular of the most well-liked products during the getaway season and is every bit as popular among kids plus adults. It is famous because it is effortless to use and possesses zero manual motions such as skateboards.

Also known as hoverboard segway, these types of personal balancing boards employ sensors to detect the particular direction in which the riders leans, and then it is electric electric motor spins often the wheels to advance in of which direction. All one desires to do is shift the bodyweight in the path this individual wishes to move. A person can use this table to commute to job or maybe for enjoyment to help go to any place a person want. If you happen to be willing to purchase one both for yourself or as a new gift for someone more, here are a new few things you will need to consider.

-Cost- Do not necessarily go for hoverbaords which often look too low-cost in order to be true. Cheap ones may well have a bad battery pack and you may possibly get injured when operating on them. Do proper research before buying just about any merchandise.

-Wheel Size- This tire size ranges coming from four. 5 to twelve inches. Small rims usually are recommended for people who also desire to ride on clean and flattened roads. Even bigger wheels are good for operating on the top connected with dirt or grass.

-Features- You can now find hoverboards loaded with capabilities like, Bluetooth speaker systems, GPS DEVICE and universal remote control. All these features normally add to typically the price of this product, nonetheless if you want these individuals, shelling out some extra income is worth this.

-Where to Buy- From where to buy a top quality hoverboard is a quite important consideration because getting it from an unauthorized dealer is not safe and can also lead to injuries. Buying a authentic hoverboard from a respected distributor can help you include a safe and comfy using experience. You can as well hunt for quality hoverboards on the net.

-Legal Consideration- Before an individual buy one of these types of scooters, it is critical to know whether that is legitimate to trip it in public or not. Make sure that you currently have someplace to head out to have some fun riding your hoverboard without any legal boundation

While hoverboards are a lot involving fun to use, they can also be risky in the event that the right precautions will be not taken purchasing these people. Consider the above pointed out take into account make a secure and informed purchase. best self balancing hoverboard for kids

Issues To Consider Before Purchasing A Hoverboard

A hoverboard is a two-wheeled self-balancing scooter which has come to be very popular in the past few years. The idea is usually considered as one particular of the most well-liked products during the getaway season and is every bit as popular among kids plus adults. It is famous because it is effortless to use and possesses zero manual motions such as skateboards.

Also known as hoverboard segway, these types of personal balancing boards employ sensors to detect the particular direction in which the riders leans, and then it is electric electric motor spins often the wheels to advance in of which direction. All one desires to do is shift the bodyweight in the path this individual wishes to move. A person can use this table to commute to job or maybe for enjoyment to help go to any place a person want. If you happen to be willing to purchase one both for yourself or as a new gift for someone more, here are a new few things you will need to consider.

-Cost- Do not necessarily go for hoverbaords which often look too low-cost in order to be true. Cheap ones may well have a bad battery pack and you may possibly get injured when operating on them. Do proper research before buying just about any merchandise.

-Wheel Size- This tire size ranges coming from four. 5 to twelve inches. Small rims usually are recommended for people who also desire to ride on clean and flattened roads. Even bigger wheels are good for operating on the top connected with dirt or grass.

-Features- You can now find hoverboards loaded with capabilities like, Bluetooth speaker systems, GPS DEVICE and universal remote control. All these features normally add to typically the price of this product, nonetheless if you want these individuals, shelling out some extra income is worth this.

-Where to Buy- From where to buy a top quality hoverboard is a quite important consideration because getting it from an unauthorized dealer is not safe and can also lead to injuries. Buying a authentic hoverboard from a respected distributor can help you include a safe and comfy using experience. You can as well hunt for quality hoverboards on the net.

-Legal Consideration- Before an individual buy one of these types of scooters, it is critical to know whether that is legitimate to trip it in public or not. Make sure that you currently have someplace to head out to have some fun riding your hoverboard without any legal boundation

While hoverboards are a lot involving fun to use, they can also be risky in the event that the right precautions will be not taken purchasing these people. Consider the above pointed out take into account make a secure and informed purchase. best self balancing hoverboard for kids

Factors To Consider Before Purchasing A Hoverboard

A hoverboard is a two-wheeled self-balancing scooter which has come to be very popular in the past few years. The idea is usually considered as one particular of the most well-liked products during the getaway season and is every bit as popular among kids plus adults. It is famous because it is effortless to use and possesses zero manual motions such as skateboards.

Also known as hoverboard segway, these types of personal balancing boards employ sensors to detect the particular direction in which the riders leans, and then it is electric electric motor spins often the wheels to advance in of which direction. All one desires to do is shift the bodyweight in the path this individual wishes to move. A person can use this table to commute to job or maybe for enjoyment to help go to any place a person want. If you happen to be willing to purchase one both for yourself or as a new gift for someone more, here are a new few things you will need to consider.

-Cost- Do not necessarily go for hoverbaords which often look too low-cost in order to be true. Cheap ones may well have a bad battery pack and you may possibly get injured when operating on them. Do proper research before buying just about any merchandise.

-Wheel Size- This tire size ranges coming from four. 5 to twelve inches. Small rims usually are recommended for people who also desire to ride on clean and flattened roads. Even bigger wheels are good for operating on the top connected with dirt or grass.

-Features- You can now find hoverboards loaded with capabilities like, Bluetooth speaker systems, GPS DEVICE and universal remote control. All these features normally add to typically the price of this product, nonetheless if you want these individuals, shelling out some extra income is worth this.

-Where to Buy- From where to buy a top quality hoverboard is a quite important consideration because getting it from an unauthorized dealer is not safe and can also lead to injuries. Buying a authentic hoverboard from a respected distributor can help you include a safe and comfy using experience. You can as well hunt for quality hoverboards on the net.

-Legal Consideration- Before an individual buy one of these types of scooters, it is critical to know whether that is legitimate to trip it in public or not. Make sure that you currently have someplace to head out to have some fun riding your hoverboard without any legal boundation

While hoverboards are a lot involving fun to use, they can also be risky in the event that the right precautions will be not taken purchasing these people. Consider the above pointed out take into account make a secure and informed purchase. best self balancing hoverboard for kids

Points To Consider Before Getting A Hoverboard

A hoverboard is a two-wheeled self-balancing scooter which has turn out to be very popular in this past few years. best hoverboards for kids This can also be considered as 1 of the most popular items during the holiday break season and is similarly popular among kids in addition to adults. It is famous because it is practical to use and offers no more manual motions such as skateboards.

Also known while hoverboard segway, these home balancing boards work with sensors to detect the particular direction in which the biker leans, and then it has the electric car spins the particular wheels to move in that will direction. All one desires to accomplish is shift the pounds in the direction he wishes to move. You can use this panel to commute to work or just for fun to go to anywhere you want. If you are usually willing to buy one both for yourself or seeing that the gift for anyone more, here are a new few things you have to take into account.

-Cost- Do not necessarily go for hoverbaords which usually look too low-cost to be able to be true. Cheap kinds may well have a defective battery pack and you may well get injured even though driving on them. Do proper research before buying any solution.

-Wheel Size- Often the rim size ranges coming from four. 5 to ten inches. Small added wheels are suggested for people who else want to ride on clean and flattened roads. Greater wheels are excellent for operating on the top involving soil or grass.

-Features- It’s simple to find hoverboards loaded with characteristics like, Wireless audio speakers, GPS DEVICE and remote control. All these attributes generally add to the price of the merchandise, yet if you want them all, paying some extra funds is worth it.

-Where to Buy- Coming from where to buy a good quality hoverboard is a very important consideration as buying it from an illegal dealer is not harmless and can also lead to accidents. Buying a true hoverboard from a trustworthy provider can help you have got a safe and comfy operating experience. You can also look for quality hoverboards on the net.

-Legal Consideration- Before you buy one of these scooters, it is critical to know whether this is authorized to journey this in public places or not. Make sure that an individual have got someplace to get to have some fun riding your hoverboard without the legal boundation

Even though hoverboards are a lot involving fun to use, they will also be risky when the perfect precautions happen to be not taken purchasing these individuals. Think of the above stated take into account make a harmless and informed purchase.